French   French
Spanish   Spanish
English   English

Coca - Patents, Scientific Papers, Theses, Books, Videos

Click here for      Coca: Science and Chemistry.


Historically, few products have been patented making use of coca leaf. As entrepreneurs in the Andean countries innovate and create new products to take coca leaf into global markets, they will need patents to protect the profits in these new markets. Below is listed the few patents on coca products, to learn how such patents are structured. Most patents filed in countries such as Bolivia are filed by foreigners, emphasizing the need for more inventing and patenting by their citizens.

Click here to learn how to use the global patent system.

Click here for the European Commission IP help desk for MercoSur.

  • Candy cigarette capable of relieving a craving for tobacco
    CN 101317619 (candy made from nicotine, caffeine, coca extracts)
  • Composition and method to augment and sustain neurotransmitter production
    US 20070160650 (also as 7595067, 7585523, 7582315)
  • Method of preparation of lemon-oil coca leaf extract based alcohol drink
  • Procedimiento para la fabricación de una bebida de extracto de hoja de coca con aceite de limón y producto obtenido
  • Method of extracting flavour from plants to produce a flavored drink
    FR2671459 (1992)
  • Method of preparing a coca leaf flavor extract
    US 4956429 (1990)
  • Appetite-supressing anorexic material extracted from coca leaves
    US 4696819 (1987)
  • Method of extracting alkaloidal constituents from plant materials
    GB 902763 (1962)
  • Detoxifying alkaloid containing compounds using electron beams
    GB 66156 (1951)
  • Process for preparing coca extracts
    US 1235450 (1917)
  • Preparation of extract of coca
    US 339,262 (1886)



  • Coca, contention and identity: the political empowerment of the cocaleros of Bolivia and Peru Ursula Durand-Ochoa, 2012, London School of Economics
  • The political ecology of cocalero resistance: a comparative analysis of the coca farmer social movement in Andean Peru, Timothy Pruett, 2012 - (UMI 3430444), West Virginia University
  • Daily life [including coca use] at Cerro Leon, an Early Intermediate period [400 BCE to 800 ACE] highland settlement in the Moche Valley, Peru, Jennifer Ringberg, 2012 - (UMI 3545543), Univ. North Carolina Chapel Hill
  • Tracing the evolutionary history of coca (Erythroxylum), Melissa Islam, 2011 - (UMI 3468387), Univ. Colorado Boulder
  • Spirituality for sale: an analysis of ayahuasca tourism [in Peru], Christine Holman, 2010 - (UMI 3410631), Arizona State University
  • Coca in Bolivia: participatory development and aid conditionality in the Chapare, Christopher Tidey, 2009 - (UMI MR52273), Univ. of Guleph
  • From the streets to the state: an analysis of Bolivia's cocaleros as a movement for social change, Angela Day, 2009 - (UMI MR50187), Dalhousie University
  • Environment, culture and medicinal plant knowledge in an indigenous Amazonian community, Christine Labriola, 2009 - (UMI 1478721), Florida International University
  • 500 years of coca eradication policy in Peru, Rachel Dahlby, 2009, Ohio State University
  • Exploring the social landscape of Cerro Leon: an Early Intermediate period site on the north coast of Peru, Barker Fariss, 2008 - (UMI 1452943), Univ. North Carolina Chapel Hill
  • Mapping, logging and coca cultivation in the Amazon borderlands, David Salisbury, 2007 - (UMI 3285946), University of Austin
  • A comparative analysis of the coffee, banana and coca regions in Colombia from the rise of developmentalism to the era of neoliberalism, Phillip Hough, 2007 - (UMI 3262431), John Hopkins University
  • Coca leaf and sindicato democracy in the Bolivian Yungas, Caroline Conzelman, 2007 - (UMI 3273741), Univ. Colorado Boulder
  • The chroniclers, Inca medicine and anesthesia, Barrie Fairley, 2006 - (UMI 1441414), San Jose State University
  • Policing [coca] for profit: United States imperialism and the international drug economy, Suzanna Reiss, 2005 - (UMI 3195479), New York University
  • International law, plant biodiversity and the protection of indigenous knowledge: an examination of intellectual property rights in relation to traditional medicine, Chidi Oguamanam, 2003 - (UMI NQ85986), Univ. of British Columbia
  • Realizing the potential of crop substitution: analysis of the Andean Coca trade, Jessica Emily Doerr, 2003, Duke University
  • Between the guerillas adn the state: the cocalero movement [for alternative development], citizenship and identity in the Colombian Amazon, Maria Ramirez de Jara, 2001 - (UMI 3028460), Harvard University
  • The ethno-economy of food, drink and settlement: the making of race in colonial Lima and Cuzco, Leo Garofalo, 2001 - (UMI 3020692), Univ. Wisconsin Madison
  • Coca cultivation, drug traffic and regional development in Cochabamba, Bolivia, Roberto Laserna, 1995 - (UMI 9602625), Univ. California Berkeley
  • Biosynthesis of cocaine and related alkaloids, Marcy Huang, 1994 - (UMI 9517365), University of Minnesota
  • The economic development of Peru: the cases of external debt of the guano economy and labor migration of the coca economy, Julio Revilla, 1992 - (UMI 9216093), Boston University
  • Bolivian coca: a perennial leaf crop subject to supply reduction policies, Victora Greenfield, 1991 - (UMI 9228670), Univ. California Berkeley
  • Studies on the biosynthesis of cocaine and related alkaloids in Erythroxylum coca, Jeffrey Bjorklund, 1991 - (UMI 9125793), Univ. of Minnesota
  • Social and economic change in a Bolivian highland valley peasant community: the impact of migration and coca, Harry Sanabria, 1989 - (UMI 9006901), Univ. of Wisconsin Madison
  • Studies on the biosynthesis and biomimetic synthesis of coca alkaloids, Sung Hoon Kim, 1988 - (UMI 8823543), Univ. of Minnesota
  • Chewing gum: a novel oral dosage form for cocaine and coca leaf extract, Sun Dong Yoo, 1985 - (UMI MK57808), Univ. of Manitoba
  • A study of bioactive substances for Erythroxylum coca, George Vee, 1983 - (UMI 8320432), Oregon State University
  • Systematic anatomy of the Erythroxylaceae, Philip Rury, 1982 - (UMI 8308346), Univ. of North Carolina Chapel Hill
  • Some biological effects associated with Erythroxylum coca, cocaine and ecgonine methylester in the rat, Frank Burczynski, 1982 - (UMI MK54313), University of Manitoba
  • Erythroxylon coca in the Peruvian highlands: practices and beliefs, Nancy Richards, 1980 - (UMI 8106789), Univ. California Irvine
  • Coca farming in the Chapare (Bolivia): a form of collective innovation, Bernard Delaine, 1980 - (UMI 8101254), Saint Louis University
  • A study of research and policy on coca chewing in Peru, Ruth Scott, 1979 - (UMI 1313955), Michigan State University
  • A study of the hydrolysis in vitro and certain biological effects of some ecognine alkaloids found in Erythroxylon coca, Richard Roscoe, 1979 - (UMI NK43098), Univ. of Manitoba
  • Coca, chicha and trago: private and communal rituals in a Quecha community, Catherine Wagner, 1978 - (UMI 7913647), Univ. Illinois Urbana
  • Ecological perspectives on coca and peasant biocultural adaptation in Peru, Roderick Burchard, 1976 - (UMI 7701871), Indiana University
  • A social history of coca in Peru, Joseph Gagliano, 1961 - (UMI 0223228), Georgetown University


  • Allen, Catherine - "The Hold Life Has: Coca and Cultural Identity in an Andean Community", Smithsonian Books, 1988
  • Alvarez, Clara - "Les Petits Cultivateurs de Coca et de Pavot en Colombie" (interview), L'Harmattan (France), 2014
  • Barbara Leons, Madeline - "Coca: Cocaine and Bolivian Reality", State University of New York Press, 1997
  • Branford, Sue - "Chemical Warfare in Colombia: The Costs of Coca Fumigation", Latin American Bureau, 2005
  • Cabieses, Fernando - "Etnologia, fisiologia y farmacologia de la coca y la cocaina", El Museo Peurano, 1985
  • Calvani, Sandro - "La Coca: Pasado y Presente: Mitos y Realidades", Ediciones Aurora, 2007
  • Cano, Carlos Gustavo - " Reinventing Alternative Development", Mama Coca, (2002)
  • Carlson-Berne, Emma (ed.) - "Cocaine", Greenhaven Press, 2005
  • Carter, William - "Ensayos cientificos sobre la coca", Libreria Editorial Juventud, La Paz Bolivia, 1982
  • Conzelman, Caroline - Agrarian Sindicato Democracy and Evo Morales’ new coca leaf politics: An Anthropological Perspective on Bolivian Strategic Culture, Florida International University: Applied Research Centre, 2010
  • Diaz, Ana Maria - A geography of coca leaf farming and armed conflict in Colombia London School Economics: Development Studies Institute, 2004
  • Ellis, Deborah - "Sacred Leaf [Coca Heritage of Bolivia]", Groundwood Books, 2007
  • Esterman, Josef - "Cruz y Coca: hacia la decolonizatión de la religion y la teología", Liberia Armonía, 2013
  • Feldman, Leonardo - "Coca y Wachuma: Plantas Maestras En La Espiritualidad Andina", Editorial Acad Mica Espa Ola, 2012
  • Flores, Eugenia - "La Coca En Salta [Argentina]", Editorial Acad Mica Espa Ola, 2012
  • Gagliano, Joseph - "Coca Prohibition in Peru: the Historical Debates", University of Arizona Press, 1994
  • Galeano, Eduardo - "Open Views of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent, Monthly Review Press, 1997, includes excellent insight into the colonial exploitation of the Potosí mines - this is an English translation of his original 1971 book - "Las venas abiertas de América Latina"
  • Gifford, Douglas - "Carnival and Coca Leaf: Some Traditions of the Quechua Ayllu", Scottish Academic Press, 1976
  • Gootenberg, Paul - Between Coca and Cocaine: a century of U.S-Peruvian drug paradoxes, 1860-1990, Woodrow Wilson Center, 2001
  • Gosse, Louis Andre - "Monographie de L'Erythroxylon Coca (1861)", Nabu Press, 2012
  • Instituto Boliviano de Biología de Altura - Usos de la Hoja de Coca y Salud Pública, La Paz, Bolivia, 1997
  • Islam, Melissa - "Tracing the Evolutionary History of Coca", UMI Dissertation Publishing, 2012
  • Karch, Steven - "History of Cocaine: the Mystery of Coca Java and the Kew Plant", Royal Society of Medicine Press, 2003
  • Koops, Megan - "The Divide of the Coca Leaf: national culture and the drug policies of Bolivia and the United States", SPNA Review, 2009
  • Llosa, Luis - " Brief review of oral cocaine [coca leaf extract] for the treatment of cocaine dependence", Self published, 2010
  • Lloyd, John U. and Lloyd, John T. - " Coca - The Divine Plant of The Incas", circa 1911
  • MacGregor, Felipe - "Coca and Cocaine: an Andean Perspective", Praeger Press, 1993
  • Mamani Pocoaca, Mauricio - "Pijchu - Coca-K'into: Si! Coca-Ina: No!", self-published (La Paz), 2006
  • Marcus, Joyce - "Conflicts over Coca Fields in 16th-Century Peru", University of Michigan Press, 1988
  • Mariani, Angelo - "Coca and its Therapeutic Application", Nabu Press, 2010
  • Mariani & Company - "Coca Erythroxylon (Vin Mariani): Its Uses in the Treatment of Disease", Nabu Press, 2010
  • Martindale, William - "Coca and Cocaine: Their History, Medical and Economics Uses, and Medicinal Preparations (1892)", Nabu Press, 2011
  • Mortimer, W. Golden - "The History of Coca", And/Or Books, 1974
  • Numhauser, Paulina - "Mujeres Indias y Senores de La Coca: Potosi y Cuzco en El Siglo XVI", Ediciones Catedra, 2005
  • Ostler, Sophia - Coca leaf: a political dilemma to be solved by legalization?, UK Parliament report, 2013
  • Pacini Hernandez, Deborah et al. - "Coca and Cocaine: Effects on People and Policy in Latin America", Cultural Survival Press, 1986
  • Painter, James - "Bolivia and Coca: a Study in Dependency", L. Reinner Publishers, 1994
  • Sanabria, Harry - "The Coca Boom and Rural Social Change in Bolivia", University of Michigan Press, 1993
  • Searle, William - "A New Form of Nervous Disease; Together with an Essay on Erythroxylon Coca", Nabu Press, 2010
  • Seki, Kunihiro and Nishi, Yoshito - "Coca: Un BioBanco - investigación cientifica sobre alimentación, curación y regeneración", Tika & Teko Press (La Paz), 2012
  • Sikkink, Lynn - "New Cures, Old Medicines: women and the commercialization of traditional medicines in Bolivia" [one chapter on coca], Wadsworth Publishing, 2010
  • Soldal, Arild - "The Water War? Coca, Structural Adjustments and Water in Cochabamba, Bolivia", VDM Verlag, 2008
  • Spedding, Alison - "Wachu Wachu: Coca Cultivation and Aymara Identity in the Yunkas of La Paz", CIPCA: Cocayapu, 1994
  • Stefanoni, Pablo - "La Revolucion de Eco Morales: de la Coca al Palacio", Capital Intellectual Press, 2006
  • U.N. ODC - "Yield Assessment of Opium Gum and Coca Leaf" - UN Office of Drug Control, July 2001 report
  • U.S. OTA - "Alternative Coca Reduction Strategies in the Andean Region" - report from the White House Office of Technology Assessment
  • U.S. IRS - "Laws and Regulations No. 35" (1916) - Production, importation, manufacture, compounding, sale, dispensing, or giving away of opium and coca leaves, their salts, derivatives or preparations


return to top